Tuesday, 15 September 2015

Are Private Schools in Dubai still a sound investment?

The announcement by KHDA that there will be 27 more private schools opening in Dubai by September 2016 ('More than 63,000 seats for students in Dubai by September 2016'  The National 23/08/2015) will undoubtedly bring more competition to the Private Schools' sector, but will it bring profits for investors?
The economic overview of the Dubai Private School sector is a relatively simple one: demand for places has outstripped supply for a number of years. This meant that new players were able to enter the Dubai market place with the relative security that schools will be full and that profits would follow.

However, 2014-15 saw a shift and supply outstripped demand.  The cover of the KHDA's Private School Infographic 2015 highlighted the new era:  "More seats for students - More choice for parents."  According to KHDA's figures, 13% of Private School places were left unfilled last year.  
Furtherore, with some seven new schools opening in Dubai in September 2015 and a promised further 27 opening by September 2016, the Dubai Private School market place is going to awash with places. 
There are four main consequences of this shift the supply curve:
  1. Parents will have more choice: New parents are likely to be much more discerning in their choice of school. It is almost certain that we are going to see a significant number parents looking to move schools. The main drivers will be geographical location ('convenience' - moving to schools that are nearer to home - reducing their daily commute) and academic standing of the school ('trading-up' - moving out of under-performing schools to one's with a stronger academic record). 
  2. There will be increased competition between schools. This competition will take three forms: quality (academic standards, wider educational/extra-curricular opportunities, pastoral care), value for money (including class sizes) and price
    It is likely that we are going to see Academic League Tables appearing within the next couple of years. There is no doubt that there are going to be opportunities for school marketeers (as schools inevitably put a greater emphasis and resourcing into their marketing strategies).
    Some schools will develop specialism that enable them to fulfil a particular market niche.
  3. Standards will rise.  Competition between schools will inevitably mean that schools will have to up their game. Until recently, standards have risen because of the drive of KHDA; going forward competition between schools both for the best students and to stay full will drive standards up still further.
  4. Schools will fail. In any free market there are winners and losers. Some schools will thrive, but those schools that do not provide value for customers (parents) will struggle.
The consequences for Investors
These likely trends will be of interest to potential investors.  There are two types of Dubai private school that are likely to succeed. First, are those schools that can ensure high academic standards. Some of these will be the established academic schools (Dubai College, JESS, etc), but others, no doubt, will be new entrants who bring established traditions of excellence to Dubai, whether that be from strong chains (such as Nord Anglia) or UK independent school franchises (such as North London Collegiate School - Sept 2017). Secondly, are those schools which are embedded in a strong residential community. These are particularly important at the Primary level, where parents of young children do not want to be travelling great distances to school, particularly where are a different times for the end of the school day. Thus, schools that have been established in partnership with housing developments, such as Ranches Primary School (declared interest: my wife is the Principal) on Arabian Ranches 2 is well placed to be successful as they have a built in residential community on the doorstep.
Overall, the Private School sector in Dubai is likely to continue to be a fertile sector for investors; however, the era of easy pickings for new comers is over, and some schools will need to review their business models to ensure ongoing survival. 

Thursday, 3 September 2015

Diary of an Economic Migrant: A Middle Eastern Perspective on Immigration

In a summer when debates about immigration have never been far from the headlines, it is at least topical that it is this year that we should choose to leave Britain to head out to work in the Middle East. The lure of excellent jobs and new challenges, combined with the promise of a better standard of living in tax-free sunshine eventually became irresistible. After interviews in London and Dubai, I accepted the post of Director of Jumeirah English Speaking School (JESS) and my wife, Samantha, was appointed Principal of Ranches Primary School (only a mile from JESS!) in May.
There is no getting around it, we are economic migrants - we are moving abroad in hope of a better life and we are willing to work hard to achieve it. However, the stand out thing for me in this whole process is the difference between the way in which the UK and the UAE approach the thorny issue of immigration and economic migration. 
The UAE welcomes migrants - indeed 93% of Dubai's population are from overseas. It has had a lot of practice at immigration and it has got the whole process taped. The UAE's approach is based on a simple principle that so long as you are economically viable you are most welcome. We (or rather our employers) are responsible for providing Health Insurance, and all schools here are fee-paying.
UAE do not offer Citizenship, but they they do allow foreign nationals to apply for Residency. This blogpost outlines the UAE immigration process and you can form your own opinion on whether or not there are lessons here from which the UK can learn.

Friday 14th. August Arrived Dubai International Airport (DXB) and, before passing through immigration, collected my work visa, which has been sponsored by my employer. My passport and work visa are stamped on entry. I'm now in a limbo: I'm neither a tourist nor a UAE resident. UAE law only allows those who have Residency to take out a rental lease on a property or a car; indeed, without Residency, you can't get a driving licence or open a bank account. My transitional status means that my employer has rented an apartment and a hire car for 30 days on my behalf - it has made life possible.

Sunday 16th August
I begin the process of applying for Residency by presenting myself at Al Safa Community Health Centre for two medical checks:
  1. A blood test to ensure that I don't have AIDS
  2. A chest X-ray to ensure that I don't have TB.
Assuming all is in order, I will be granted Residency for two years in the first instance, after which I will need to reapply (which I understand is a formality and doesn't entail the medical checks).

I then applied for my UAE ID Card, which I shall be required to carry at all times.  This entailed paying a fee (270 AED = £46) and reporting to the Emirates Identity Authority to have my biometric data collected:
  • Finger prints
  • Headshot photograph
  • Signature
Monday 17th August 
I am now officially a UAE Resident with a Residency Visa in my passport. I am now able to apply for a driving licence, to open a bank account and to rent a property.

Thursday 20th August
Reported to the Optician's to have formal eye test so that I can apply for my driving licence.
Thursday 3rd September
My Emirates ID has arrived. I now am able to apply for a Driving Licence, register to be able to have an account for Water and Electricity, and to arrange for a TV/Telephone for my house.

There is a lot of paperwork to be done on arrival in the UAE, but one of the great things about Dubai is that the Dubai Municipality building has customer service centres for a whole range of organisations: the RTA (Transport), Ejari, (Property Registration), DEWA (Water and Electricity), Immigration and so on. The end result is that you can go to one building and deal with a whole range of issues at one hit. Inside there people providing typing and photocopying services, so, if you happen to forget to photocopy a key document, it can be done in a minute.
I applied for my Driving Licence - the Municipality were unbelievably efficient and I receive my new driving licence over the counter 10 minutes after walking into the building - the DVLA has much to learn.

Monday 7th September
I am now registered with DEWA (Dubai Electricity and Water Authority) - the bills are now on my tab, but I now can register the Tenancy for the villa in my name.

All of this would not have been possible to achieve so smoothly without the expertise of Azeez, the JESS Administration Assistant and School Driver.

Sunday, 9 August 2015

The interpretation of Murder by Jed Rubenfeld - Book Review

This is a very clever book in both concept and execution. 
The concept is to set a classic detective novel within the historical context of the week-long visit of Sigmund Freud's to New York from 29 August 1909. This plot opens up the possibility for discussion of Freud's psychoanalytic theories through discussions between his inner circle, which includes Jung. An interesting recurrent discussion is of Freud's interpretation of Hamlet (Is his inaction being driven be Oedipal desires?). 
As far as its execution is concerned, the novel stands on its own feet as a murder mystery. It has many of the twists and turns associated with the genre and some excellent high tension scenes that I suspect authors include in the hope that the book will be picked up by Holywood. 
However, it is the underlying concept of this novel that is its genius: for the whole plot (and to some extent its resolution) is based on one of Freud's most famous cases (the case of Dora = Ida Bauer). Thus, like newspaper crosswords, this mystery can be solved on two levels: at a simple level by the uninformed reader by following the detectives as they uncover the clues; or at a cryptic level by Freud aficionados who will see a familiar narrative unfolding. 
This is the best kind of historical novel as it weaves together fact with imagination in order to speculate on what the protagonists might have thought, said and done. In this case, Rubenfeld explores the tensions and changing relationship between Freud and Jung which ultimately led to their 'break' in 1912. 
One of the things I always ask myself when I reach the end of an historical novel is, how much of it was true? Jed Rudenfeld must have read my mind and helpfully adds an 'author's note' to distill the fact from the fiction. An entertaining and informative read.

Monday, 27 July 2015

Changing the email culture of an organisation

There is little doubting that smart phones were the "game-changer" when it comes to email - once your work emails were on the phone there was no getting away from them . . . or indeed from work. For those of us who are technically minded achieving a work-life balance took on a new dimension.
Work emails coming through 'out of hours' have an ability to pull you instantly away from your family, friends and relaxation, back to the office. The arrival of a work email in your inbox can ruin an evening or weekend. They put the ball back in your court - they demand action, whether that be thought, a phone call, or (just!) the time to reply. One of the biggest problems with emails is that they are like a virus, they spawn more emails - they demand replies and very soon everyone is sending emails to each other. The consequence is that the whole tempo of the organisation speeds up to the point where it is out of control and people simply cannot cope any more.
The 1900 to 0700 Curfew 
Berkhamsted School is like most other organisations: emails came through morning, noon and night. We took the view in September 2013, that we would limit our internal email traffic to weekdays between 0700 and 1900 only. This principle was extended to parents in March 2015 - parents were informed that any emails sent outside 'office hours' would be dealt with the next working day. There is nothing to stop colleagues from drafting replies outside these times, so long as they use the 'delayed delivery' function in Outlook (Options - Delay Delivery). 
The key principle here is that we all to manage our own time as we see fit, but that it is wrong to put the ball into a colleague's court by sending an email outside the working day.
The Results
Two years on, the volume of email traffic has reduced and emails are generally more considered - there are fewer late night alcohol induced rants. Most importantly there has been a shift in mindset: there has been a cultural shift in the moral 'high ground' colleagues no longer feel guilty not replying to an email - colleagues now feel guilty for sending them. Colleagues now feel that it is acceptable to ignore evening and weekend emails. When colleagues break the curfew, it is quite common for them to preface their emails with "I'm sorry to break the curfew, but . . . ", which can be quite endearing when the 'but' is an enthusiastic member of the coaching staff sharing the weekend success of a school sports team.
The result is that the school is calmer. We are working smarter not longer. The whole exercise has meant that staff feel valued. Achieving a term-time work-life balance in our school community remains a challenge, but we have taken one small step in the right direction, and that is appreciated by us all.
Issues yet to be resolved - School Vacations
There are still a number of issues that need to be resolved as to how the school email protocol operates during the School holidays. We have to face the fact that teachers and school leaders get more annual leave than people who have made different career choices. We also have to acknowledge that a proportion of the time when schools are on vacation are times when teachers and school leaders work - to some extent it is "non-contact time" -  be that lesson preparation or performing management tasks. In the twenty-first century it is unreasonable for employees to be totally uncontactable for the six (or in the case of many independent schools - eight) weeks of the summer vacation - particularly for middle and senior leaders..  Here the general principles of the term-time protocol apply: emails are sent during the weekdays 0900 and 1700 and allowance is given when replies aren't the next day.
Teaching is a profession and clock-watching is not part of a professional mindset.
A key area of debate at Berkhamsted is the extent to which teachers should be available to examination year pupils during the key revision periods of Easter and the Summer half-term. There are arguments either way - this is a period when motivated pupils who are working their way through past papers can benefit enormously from teacher feedback, but it is also the time of year when teachers are under the greatest pressure. A balance needs to be struck; and in most cases, teachers are giving of their time and expertise when the pupils have made a consistent effort throughout the year and have managed their time well.

Key Lessons learned
  • A change in email culture needs to be driven from the top - school leaders need to be role models and create a culture where teachers 'have permission' to ignore 'out of hours' email traffic. It is well known that employees follow the lead of senior figures in organisations in order to get on: as School Principal, I made a point of activating my 'out of office' notification at weekends.
  • Breaches of the curfew need to be followed up with an informal conversation - particularly when the perpetrators are in the SLT.
  • Staff need training in how to use the 'Delayed Delivery' feature in Outlook.
Note on Independent and Maintained Sector Schools
This week, the Secretary of State for Education, Nicky Morgan, called for schools to ban 'out of hours' emails to ease the workload on teachers in the maintained sector ('Morgan: Ban emails after 5pm to help teachers cope with workload' Daily Telegraph 26/07/2015). I'm sure that this is a step in the right direction. There are different pressures in the two sectors: independent schools increasingly demanding fee-paying parents; and there is much more 'red tape' and bureaucracy in the maintained sector. Both create email and pressure.  Schools need space to do their jobs and limiting email traffic is one way to help teachers do this.

Berkhamsted School was award the Investors in People Gold Award in July 2015.

This article was written for publication in Schools Week.  See the article here.

Monday, 6 July 2015

The Rising Sun - A personal portrait of my favourite place in Berkhamsted

The Riser is the guardian of the canal: its beer garden - the towpath; its children's playground and the best seats in the house - the lock-gates, the huge beams with which the passing tourist captains grapple, dislocating the locals in the process. 
All life is welcome here. Professional escapists brush shoulders with those looking for a temporary escape from the strain of their professions. It is equally a favourite port of call for the boat people who move home at fortnightly intervals up and down The Grand Union, as it is for the regulars on the 1751 from Euston. At weekends these worlds combine in a festival atmosphere of acceptance and inclusion. Designer clothes are abandoned in preference to a wardrobe drawn from outdated days of cool. This is a place without pretense or pretension, a place where no one puts up a facade, a place to be oneself. Here the finest things are savoured for what they are rather than for what they symbolise: Ales (real, of course), scrumpy, house wines, and even cigars and snuff. 
Entertainment is provided in the form of a passing peloton, side-tracked from their exertions by the prospect of quality refreshment. Their bikes stacked precariously next the murky lock waters, they argue about whose round it is and, over the second pint, swap excuses that are unlikely to convince their long-suffering wives. 
Do people make places? Or do places make people? Either way, some places are special because they bring the best out of people - oh that we could all live life like we do at The Rising Sun on a sunny Summer's afternoon.

Thanks to Alastair Harrison, @AlastairHarriso - an inspirational English Teacher at Berkhamsted School - who encouraged me to write this piece - over a pint at The Kings Arms!

Saturday, 16 May 2015

Elective use of laptops in examinations - Times Article

Article published in The Times 16/05/2015 on Berkhamsted School's introduction of elective use of laptops in public examinations.

Loophole allows students to use laptops in exams 

Nicola Woolcock Education Correspondent

Teenagers at an independent school will use laptops to sit some GCSEs and A levels this year, after their head teacher figured out a loophole to excuse them from hours of handwritten examinations.
The move could trigger a revolution in exams, speeding up the demise of the traditional test papers that are sat by about a million pupils each year.
Mark Steed, the headmaster of Berkhamsted School in Hertfordshire, said that while schools taught using 21st-century technology, they were forced to revert to outdated methods for exams. Thirteen of his pupils have spent the past two years using only laptops in subjects such as English, history and religious studies, rather than taking handwritten notes. This means that exam boards must allow them to use laptops, Mr Steed said, as it is recognised as their “normal way of working”. Eight took exams this way last year, the first year the school gave pupils the opportunity to do so. Until now, most schools have allowed only pupils with special needs to use technology in exams, complying with regulations laid down by the Joint Council of Qualifications, which represents exam boards. However, a clause in its guidance says:
“Centres [schools] are allowed to provide a word processor, with the spelling and grammar check/predictive text disabled, to a candidate where it is their normal way of working within the centre.” 
Berkhamsted School plans to broaden the practice in the next few years and other independent schools could follow suit. It comes amid growing concerns about children being marked down for illegible handwriting in exams, as they are not used to writing at length.
Mr Steed said:
“At present, new technologies are helping young people to learn better both in and out of the classroom, but then we transport them through time back to the 1930s to make them sit an examination. No wonder there is scepticism about the value of new technologies in education when the exam system is forcing us to use them with one hand tied behind our back.” 
He said that tablet and app-based learning was beginning to transform education for pupils aged four to 14, but then schools got cold feet when it came to GCSEs and A levels.
“As long as the exam boards and universities require young people to sit formal examinations in rows, in silence and without access to technology as a point of reference, then their schooling will inevitably devote significant time and energy into training them to excel in those conditions,”
Peter Hamilton, the chairman of the Headmasters’ and Headmistresses’ Conference academic policy committee, said: “It could be a very interesting way of working in the future.”

Sunday, 10 May 2015

A ‘Customer-focused School’ - Some thoughts on school marketing and why, how and when we should listen to parents.

My opening address at the AMDIS Conference at The Belfry on Monday 11th. May 2015.

From the conference programme:
In his opening address, Mark Steed explores the concept of a "customer-focused school". The presentation will look at how schools, through collecting data about their current and prospective parents, can gain customer insight and thus ensure sustainable growth. Using practical examples from Barkhamsted School, Mark will discuss ways in which schools can develop what they have to offer to create new demand by opening up new markets; and how far schools should go in listening to their parents.

Friday, 1 May 2015

Education, New Technologies and the Elephant in the Examination Hall

Assess the potential for technology-enabled innovation in products/services and processes in your organisation: 
Thus ran the assignment question for the 'Innovation and Technology module' of the Executive Masters in Management course that I am studying with Ashridge Business School.

What is the potential for technology-enabled innovation in Secondary Education?
Well it's enormous - young people learning collaboratively, being creative in their learning, sharing apps, learning through gaming and so on. But hold on .. . . . . . . (and it's not me putting the breaks on here) . . . . . the potential for technology-enabled innovation in secondary education is currently limited by one significant external factor – the nature of British examination system. 
At present, new technologies are helping young people to learn better both in and out of the classroom - but then we take them away from their collaborative connected learning environment, and transport them through time back to the 1930s to make them sit an examination. No wonder there is skepticism about the value of new technologies in education when the exam system is forcing us to use them with one hand tied behind out back. 
Whilst tablet and app-based learning is beginning to transform education at KS1, KS2 and KS3, the whole process gets stuck there; and schools, understandably, get cold feet when is comes to KS4 and KS5. So long the Exam Boards (and Universities) require young people to sit formal examinations in rows, in silence, without access to technology (as a point of reference), then the nature of the schooling that takes place prior to those exams will inevitably devote significant time and energy into training them to excel in those conditions. Rather than getting the most out of the new technologies available to them, quite understandably, schools are harnessing new C21 technologies to develop C20 skills in order to sit C20 examinations. Thus it is no surprise that, when given a totally free choice of device to bring into school, 98% of Berkhamstedians from Y10 to Y13 choose a laptop. This is automation not transformation.
Online Examinations? 
Changes in examination board regulations mean that since Summer 2013 pupils who do not have a Specific Learning Difficulty who use a laptop as their "normal way of working" accrue a right to use laptops in public examinations: 
“Centres are allowed to provide a word processor with the spelling and grammar check/ predictive text disabled to a candidate where it is their normal way of working within the centre, unless an awarding body’s specification says otherwise. This also includes an electronic brailler, an iPad or a pc tablet.” JCQ General and Vocational Qualifications, Instructions for conducting examinations 1 September 2012 to 31 August 2013. Section 8.8 p.24;  (My emphasis) 
There is no inherent advantage in using laptops. The laptops have to be provided by the centre, the spell check has to be disabled and the pupils get no additional time. Parents are charged £100 for the provision of a 'clean' exam-ready laptop - this cost covers mocks and Summer exams. 
However, this is recognition by JCQ and the Exam Boards that laptops are the normal way of working for some pupils and that it would be penalising them not to allow them to sit exams using a laptop. ">It is for each school to define 'normal way of working'.
At Berkhamsted, we took the view that the pupil had to use the laptop in lessons and for homework for the length of their GCSE, AS or A2 course. As a consequence of this change, this year 13 Berkhamstedians (eight boys and five girls) have chosen to sit a proportion of their GCSEs and A-levels on a laptop under the terms of these regulations, mainly in those subjects which require extended pieces of writing such as English, History and Religious Studies. Small steps forward, but, again, this is automation not transformation.
Berkhamsted School Elective Laptop Use in Exams 2014 and 2015
Google in Exams? 
Mark Dawe, chief executive of OCR, argued that pupils should have access to the Internet when doing examinations on the basis that memorising reams of information was “not how the modern world works” (See 'Let students use websites during examinations' Times 01/05/2015). He is quite right. This is not a new debate, I recall a debate within the Cambridge Theology faculty when I was a student, as to whether or not undergraduates should be allowed to have a bible in their examinations. Access to Google is not an enormous step on from 'open book' English Literature examinations that were part of A-level English for many years. It all comes down to what we are testing here - knowledge of facts? the ability to put an argument together? or the ability to research?
Concerns about cheating in exams which have internet access are overstated. No one here is advocating that pupils be allowed to communications with others during exams. Key-stroke capture (which records what each candidate did whilst online) and plagiarism software, such as Turnitin, provide the means and method to deter and police the issues of access to the Internet.

The current examination hall reflects a time that has passed. There is little doubt that the examination system needs to change and will change. 
None of us works that way anymore. We work in teams. We work on shared documents. We work with people the other side of room - and the other side of the world. We run our diaries, take notes and communicate with other through our phones, our tablets, our laptops and our desktops. Indeed of most of the written notes we make end up on the fridge! When you last needed a fact, or a quote, or to check a spelling, did you pull an a encyclopedia, the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations or the OED off the shelf? or did you Google or Wikipedia it? Social media has meant that our professional networks include people we have never met and are never likely to meet. LinkedIn is replacing business cards (at least in the West!); and we share ideas and take part in debates across continents. We work differently, and, because of that, we should teach, learn and assess differently.
So what will the school and university assessment system of the future look like? 
If the future assessment system is to prepare young people for the demands of the C21 workplace (or indeed C21 academia), it is likely that there will be greater component of teamwork and collaborative working. Dissertations, projects, videos and presentations (think Screencast rather than PowerPoint) are likely to be a greater proportion of the overall assessment. This has already happened in some areas - the Ashridge MBA programme abandoned its final examination a number of years ago and now incorporates a number of practical assessments - such as 'live case' consultancy exercises - rather than assessing totally through extended essays and exams. 
Whilst traditional Harvard-referenced Dissertations assessing the skills of critical analysis and evaluation may remain as one component in a portfolio, we are likely to see a greater range of assignments where creativity, visual literacy and 'the ability to sell an idea' are likely to be valued skills, 
The end of examinations? It is very likely that universities and employers will still want a qualification system that identifies and distills out individual performance where a least part of the assessment process is conducted against the clock, It is almost certain that these will be online and will be much more like the tests that top law and accountancy firms are using as the first round of their employment screening process. Typically these give the candidate some key texts and data which they have a specific period of time to digest, before writing a report against the clock drawing on these sources. So it is a safe bet that exams are here to stay.

Is this new assessment system really that radical? These ideas do not really represent as radical a shift in our thinking as might at first be seen. Afterall, our present examination GCSE and A-level examination system already has some of the components of C21 examination: we examine individuals on their team performance in Drama and Sport; we have open book examinations in English Lit and we pre-release material in Art to allow A-level Art candidates to research weeks in advance of their final practical exam.

Monday, 20 April 2015

Wearable Tech Policy for School

At Berkhamsted, we are committed to pupils using mobiles devices to support their learning through appropriate use in school and at home. Alongside this, we believe that we have an educational responsibility to help young people manage how and when they use new technologies and thus have always taken an approach that we would rather 'educate' than 'ban',
So working within this context, the Senior Leadership Team this afternoon grappled with the thorny issue of how we approach the issue of 'Wearable Technology' (such as the Apple Watch) in school. It was a thoughtful and lively debate:
On one level, it would appear that there is little difference between having a fully connected mobile device in one's pocket and on one's wrist, so why the fuss?
Well, we decided that there are two reasons why a watch poses additional issues:
  1. First, from a teacher's perspective, wearable technology is very difficult to police.  When necessary, it is relatively easy for a teacher to say 'your phone needs to be in your pocket/bag', it becomes much more difficult to ask the class to remove their watches.
  2. Secondly, from a pupil's perspective, wearable technology is less easy to ignore. The buzz of a phone on vibrate mode in a pocket or bag is out of sight and sometimes earshot - whereas the temptation to catch up on a text/ or social media update is almost impossible to ignore when it's on your wrist.
So, we took a middle way: not banning, but discouraging wearable technology in school: our mobile device policy now has an additional paragraph as follows:

Berkhamsted School Wearable Tech Policy:
  1. If Wearable Tech is worn in lessons or in public areas around the school, the ‘Do not disturb’/’flight mode’ should be activated.
  2. Wearable Tech must not be worn in exams as this will result in disqualification. Exam Regulations do not allow any device capable of mobile communication. 
  3. Our strong advice is that pupils should not bring Wearable Tech devices to school, because they are likely to be a greater distraction than other mobile devices. 
  4. If a Wearable Tech device is deemed by the teacher to be causing a distraction around school, it is liable to confiscation until the end of the school day.

Saturday, 21 March 2015

Appraisal and Performance Management in Schools - A practical approach

A presentation given as part of the leadership strand at TLAB15 on Saturday 21st March 2015